than thewhole.

Analytical thinking recognizes cause and effect. Time-binders are the masters of cause and
effect. When humans understand cause and effect, they make scientific discovery. They
make knowledge. When humans make choices based on knowledge, they make
inventions. They make technology. Time-binders are the creators of knowledge and
technology. When knowledge is incorporated into matter-energy, it becomes a tool.
Humans are above all else toolmakers. Most of our knowledge is embedded in our tools.
Human knowledge grows continuously and without limit. As we incorporate our
evermore powerful knowledge into tools. We produce evermore powerful tools.

Time-binding is also that unique human ability to pass that 'knowing' from one generation
to the next generation. Both animal and human offspring begin their lives in nearly total
ignorance. The differences that exist between them are small, but what advantage in
knowing that does exist belongs clearly to the animal. While the animal seems to begin life
with a greater store of inherited knowing, it possesses little ability to learn from its
parents. The animal is condemned to rediscover over and over, every generation must
discover anew the knowings of its parents. The wise old owl may know a great deal, but
he has no way to pass what he knows to his offspring and they have no way to receive it.
We humans are very different in that respect. We can and do pass our knowing from one
generation to the next. Alfred Korzybskiexplains:

"Human beings possess a most remarkable capacity which is entirely peculiar to
them — I mean the capacity to summarise, digest and appropriate the labors and
experiences of the past; I mean the capacity to use the fruits of past labors and
experiences as intellectual or spiritual capital for developments in the present; I
mean the capacity to employ as instruments of increasing power the accumulated
achievements of the all-previous lives of the past generations spent in trial and
error, trial and success; I mean the capacity of human beings to conduct their lives
in the ever increasing light of inherited wisdom; I mean the capacity in virtue of
which man is at once the inheritor of the by-gone ages and the trustee of posterity.
And because humanity is just this magnificent natural agency by which the past
lives in the present and the present for the future, I define HUMANITY, in the
universal tongue of mathematics and mechanics, to be the TIME-BINDING

IMAGE Gift_Tensegrity02.jpg

42Alfred Korzybski, The Manhood of Humanity, ibid

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We humans bind time and are bound together in time. The record of our time-binding is
everywhere. It is in all that activity that we so innocently call progress. It is the very motor
of obsolescence. It is imbedded in just about every thing associated with humans and yet
most humans are unaware of the very power that makes them human. We humans
catalogue and store our various knowings in libraries, universities, colleges, data banks,
and information services. We store our knowing in many formats — books, tapes, films,
movies, newspapers, magazines, video, microfilm, photos, computer files, etc., etc., etc.
We are time-binders and the mark of human power is everywhere.

But, humans are morethan just time-binders with the power to understand. We also have
the the power of space-bindingmobility and the ability to think wholistically,and the
power of energy-bindingconversionof plant and animal tissue to organic chemical
energy, growthand organizationof energy.

Human success depends not just on understanding, but also on knowing when, where and
how to be mobile. And also on the ability to control the energy which we will need to
power our movement. We must have adequate energy stored so that we can release it at
the proper moment to adapt to our environment.

Synergy — the natural law of humans

"The human class of life is a part and a product of nature, therefore, there must be
fundamental laws which are natural for this class of life. A stone obeys the natural
laws of stones; a liquid conforms to the natural law of liquids; a plant, to the
natural laws of plants; an animal, to the natural laws of animals; it follows
inevitably that there must be natural laws for humans."43

The synergicrelationship originates in the humanworld.

Universe provides unlimited timefor humans. This is the sense of Time-binding. Human
lives are finite, but human knowledge is not. Humans discovered control of fire ~1.5
million years ago,and it has been in daily use since then. Humans invent the wheel ~5500
years ago and its use is everywhere today. Because humans pass their knowledge to their
descendants, in a sense, collective human life is not limited. Understanding is not limited.
Knowledge is not limited. Technology is not limited. Quality of human life based on
knowledge and technology is not limited.

IMAGE Gift_Tensegrity02.jpg

43Alfred Korzybski,The Manhood of Humanity, ibid

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TrustMark 2001 by Timothy Wilken


We first discover synergic relationship in the microscopic universe. It is the basis of human
cellular organization. Each of us has approximately 40 trillion cells organized within our
bodies. These cells are related synergically, each acting in a highly co-Operative way.

Synergic relationship becomes available to human individuals because of Time-binding.
Our ability to invent and to understand new ways of doing things creates a new
possibility forco-Operationwhich does not exist in the world of the plants and animals.

Co-OPERATION —def—> Operating together to insure that all parties win and no party
loses. The negotiation to insure that all parties are helped and no party is hurt.

Cooperation is an old word with lots of different meanings and feelings attached to it.
Similar words are uniting, banding, combining, concurring, conjoining, and leaguing.
Individuals who cooperate are affiliates, allies, associates, or confederates.

To some cooperation seems a losing word associated with socialism and communism. This
is not what I mean. Co-Operation in synergic relationship means operating togetherto
insure awin-win outcome.

Co-Operation is the mechanism of action necessary whenever an individual desires to
accomplish a task beyond his individual abilities.

Imagine, you and a friend are moving a heavy piece of furniture. You operate together
during the lifting. You would negotiate to insure the win — to insure being helped. The
conversation might go like this: "Are you ready?""Ok.""Ready, 1.. 2.. 3.. lift!"
"Whoops! Set it down."

This is the true meaning of co-Operation — the negotiation to insure that both individuals
win — and to insure that neither individual loses.

A very limited form of cooperation exists among some animals. We see it the hunting pride
of lions and within the hyena pack. Human co-Operation is a much more powerful
mechanism. Animals have no voice with which to negotiate. Their primitive cooperation
is guided by instinct, and it is quick to breakdown into the fighting and flighting of the
adversary way.

We humans share the animal body, to survive we must also eat. We are omnivores. We

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TrustMark 2001 by Timothy Wilken


meet our basic needs and survive by eating both plants and animals. Physiologically, we
humans are also a dependent class of life. So adversary behavior comes to humans
legitimately. But we humans are much more intelligent than the animals and that
intelligence gives us options other than fighting or flighting.

True co-Operation — working together, teamwork, joint effort, alliances — these are only
possible to a life form with symbolic intelligence — to a life form with a voice and with
language. On this planet that means synergic relationships are available only to humans.
Synergic relationship means sometimes I depend on otherand sometimes other depends
on me. Synergic relationship makes humans theinterdependent class of life —
interdependent on eachother. Today, synergic relationship exists only within small
groups of humans. Often within families, occasionally within some partnerships and small
businesses. Today, there are no examples of institutionalized synergy. Today, there are no
synergic governments.

Co-Operation results when there are no losersand no one is ignored. When humans
behave synergically, they seek their goals and needs as allies rather than as competitors.
Human intelligence is most useful when we humans think of ways where all parties can
win and where there is no need for losers. Synergic relationships can produce all-win
. And when humans begin to co-Operate wonderful things can begin to happen.
When we analyze synergic relationships, we find that (1+1)>2,frequently it's much more
greater, (1+1)>>>2.

Synergic mechanism is basic to Life. Synergy is present in the energy-binders. If we
examine the plants microscopically, we find that each plant is organized to work together,
every cell contributing to the integrity of the whole plant. But the whole plant is more
than an accumulation of vegetable cells. But at the macroscopic level the plant is neutral.
It has no relationship with other plants.

Synergy is present in the space-binders as well. If we examine the animals we will find that
microscopically they are synergically organized. Their organelles are synergized into
cells, their cells are synergized into tissues, their tissues are synergized into organs, their
organs are synergized into the organism-as-a-whole. Every cell interacting synergistically
with every other cell. But for space-binders this is where synergy stops. The space-binder
is behaviorally an adversary — the opposite of synergy. The intelligence of space-binding
is inadequate to allow space-binders to organize themselves into a synergic community.
The lion kills the zebra with no thought of the effect of the community of animals as a

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TrustMark 2001 by Timothy Wilken


whole. The space-binder is not irresponsible he is aresponsible. His adversary behavior is
the result of innocence. He sees himself as the only "whole". As for the rest of his world
there is only good space or bad space. He lives the life of true dependence. If he is to eat,
he must make a kill. If he is to drink, he must locate the water hole. If he is to have shelter,
he must secure it.

We humans are also microscopic synergies. However, on the macroscopic or behavioral
level we have to choose to act synergically. Today most of our relationships are adversary
or neutral, but we humans have the synergic option denied to the plants and animals. In
synergic relationship, (1+1)>2, (1+1) can be 25. In synergic relationship (1+1+1+1) can
equal 100,000,000.

The Beatles — an example of synergy
Four young musicians named, John, Paul, George, and Ringo form a group in England in
the 1960's. If we add up their separate individual musical abilities, (1+1+1+1),we would
expect it would equal 4. But when the Beatles perform in synergy they break the rules of
Newtonian logic with their joining, for the Beatles — (1+1+1+1) equaled hundreds of

Synergy is in the "whole".When the synergic relationship was broken, when the Beatles
stopped performing together and returned to being individuals, their earnings as
individuals dropped off dramatically despite their high separate activity. Forbes
Magazine ranked THE BEATLES #5 on its list of the 40 top earners in the field of
entertainment for 1996/1997. Although, they disbanded in 1979, their music earned
royalties totaling $98,000,000.00. eighteen years later.

Synergy then is that something extra that exists in the whole that cannot be discovered by
analyzing and summing the parts. What made the Beatles so very very special cannot be
found by analyzing John, Paul, George, or Ringo as separate musicians.

In summary then,Alfred Korzybski defined the three classes of life as energy-binders,
space-binders, & time-binders.

Plants adapt through their awareness and control of energy. Animals adapt through their
awareness and control of space, and. Humans adapt through their awareness and control
of time.

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Draft Sun, Oct 28, 2001

TrustMark 2001 by Timothy Wilken


Plants possess the power of energy-binding which is growth and organization. Animals
possess the power of space-binding which is mobility and some of the power of energy-
binding. Humans possess the power of time-binding which is understanding, and some of
the power of space-binding and energy-binding.

The natural law of plants is Neutrality — they ignore other.
The natural law of animals is Adversity — they hurt other.
The natural law of humans is Synergy — they help other.

3 Ways — Key Terms and Concepts

• Energy-binding — Growth & Organization — Neutrality — (1+1)=2

• Space-binding — Mobility — Adversity — (1+1)<2

• CONFLICT —def—> The struggle to avoid loss — the struggle to
avoid being hurt.

• Time-binding — Understanding — Synergy — (1+1)>>2

• Co-OPERATION —def—> Operating together to insure that all
parties win and no party loses. The negotiation to insure that all
parties are helped and no party is hurt.

Appendix — Three Classes of Life

Gift Tensegrity

Draft Sun, Oct 28, 2001

TrustMark 2001 by Timothy Wilken


More On Human Needs

The psychologist, Henry Murray identified twenty human psychogenic needs.These can
also be broken down further into categories related to otherand self.

IMAGE Gift_Tensegrity47.jpg

Other Related

Self Related

1•Abasement — To apologize, confess, or
atone. Self-depreciation.

2•Achievement — Do something difficult.

3•Affiliation — To love. To join groups.
To form friendships & associations.

4•Aggression — To protect self by
injuring/hurting other.

8•Deference — To serve other. To
cooperate with a leader. To admire &
willingly follow a leader.

5•Autonomy — To seek independence.

9•Dominance — To control others.

6•Counteraction — To fight back. To
prove oneself.

10•Exhibition — To attract other. To
excite, amuse, stir, shock, or thrill others.

7•Defendence — To protect self from
blame or belittlement. To justify one's

12•Infravoidance — To avoid the negative
opinion of other.

11•Harmavoidance — To protect self
from physical danger.

13•Nurturance — To help helpless other.
To parent a child.

14•Order — To organize. To be tidy and

16•Rejection — To ignore or exclude
other. To be aloof & indifferent.

15•Play — To recreate and relax. To
amuse, have fun.

18•Sex — To form an erotic relationship
with other. To reproduce or procreate.

17•Sentience — To seek pleasure. To
focus on physical sensations or feelings.

19•Succorance — To seek other's
protection. To Cry for help.

20•Understanding — To discover
meaning in life.

Appendix — More on Human Needs

Gift Tensegrity

Draft Sun, Oct 28, 2001

TrustMark 2001 by Timothy Wilken